Pengaruh Radiasi Microwave dan Perlakuan Asam pada Batubara Peringkat Rendah terhadap Perolehan Biosolubilisasi Menggunakan Neurospora intermedia

Nendry Nurramdani Solihah, Dwiwahju Sasongko, Elvi Restiawaty

Abstract


Abstrak. Biosolubilisasi batubara peringkat rendah merupakan teknologi yang menjanjikan untuk mendapatkan bahan bakar cair yang ramah lingkungan. Biosolubilisasi batubara peringkat rendah dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan mikroorganisme seperti Neurospora intermedia yang mampu menghasilkan enzim-enzim pensolubilisasi. Mekanisme biosolubilisasi batubara terjadi karena adsorpsi enzim-enzim tersebut ke permukaan partikel batubara, sehingga proses perlakuan awal batubara perlu dilakukan untuk memudahkan proses adsorpsi enzim. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengkaji pengaruh perlakuan awal partikel batubara peringkat rendah terhadap struktur batubara dan perolehan biosolubilisasi. Pengaruh perlakuan awal tersebut dikaji dengan membandingkan biosolubilisasi menggunakan partikel batubara tanpa perlakuan awal (B1), perlakuan fisik dengan memberikan radiasi microwave 511 Watt selama 5 menit (B2), perlakuan kimiawi dengan merendam partikel batubara dalam HNO3 8 M selama 48 jam (B3), serta perlakuan kombinasi radiasi microwave selama 5 menit dan HNO3 dengan konsentrasi 2, 4, 6, dan 8 M selama 48 jam (B4, B5, B6, dan B7). Partikel batubara B1 memiliki rentang diameter mesopori sebesar 33,97 Å, sedangkan partikel batubara yang telah mengalami perlakuan awal mengalami peningkatan diameter pori namun masih dalam rentang mesopori. Luas permukaan persatuan massa dan volume pori yang tertinggi diperoleh dari perlakuan B3, masing-masing adalah 44,39 m2/g dan 0,09 cc/g. Hasil analisis proksimat dan ultimat menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan asam dapat mengurangi kandungan karbon terikat. Secara kualitatif dapat terlihat bahwa biosolubilisasi batubara B1, B2, B4, dan B5 tidak terjadi dengan baik, sehingga tidak terdapat cairan hitam sebagai hasil batubara yang tersolubilisasi, sedangkan biosolubilisasi batubara B3, B6, dan B7 menghasilkan cairan hitam sejak hari pertama. Secara kuantitatif, biosolubilisasi batubara peringkat rendah menggunakan perlakuan B3 menghasilkan konsentrasi asam humat dan persentase biosolubilisasi yang tertinggi, masing-masing yaitu 186,1 mmol/L dan 67,8%.

 

Kata Kunci: Biosolubilisasi batubara, Neurospora intermedia, HNO3, radiasi microwave

 

 

Abstract. Bio-solubilization of low rank coal is a promising technology to obtain environmentally friendly liquid fuel. Bio-solubilization can be carried out using microorganism, such as Neurospora intermedia, which is capable to produce solubilizing enzymes. Mechanism of coal bio-solubilization occurs due to enzymes adsorption onto surface of coal, so that the low rank coal pre-treatment is needed to easy enzyme adsorption. This research examines the effects of low rank coal pre-treatment towards coal structure and bio-solubilization yields. The effects of the pre-treatment was studied by comparing the bio-solubilization using coal with the following specification: without treatment (B1), physical pre-treatment of 511 Watt microwave radiation for 5 minutes (B2), chemical pre-treatment using 8 M HNO3 for 48 hours (B3), and pre-treatment with a combination of microwave radiation for 5 minutes and acid treatment using various HNO3 concentration of 2, 4, 6, and 8 M for 48 hours (B4, B5, B6, and B7). Coal particle of B1 had mesopore diameter range of 33.97 Å, while coal particle with pre-treatment have increased pore diameter, but are still in range of mesopore. The highest specific surface area and pore volume was B3, in sequence 44.39 m2/g and 0.09 cc/g. The proximate and ultimate analyses showed that acid treatment reduced fixed carbon contain. Coal bio-solubilization of B1, B2, B4, and B5 by qualitative could not be solubilized and there was no black liquid as a result of solubilized coal, meanwhile B3, B6, and B7 were solubilized easily since the first day. Bio-solubilization of chemically pre-treatment low rank coal, B3, resulted the highest humic acid concentration and bio-solubilization percentage i.e. 186.1 mmol/L and 67.8%, respectively.

 

Keywords: Coal bio-solubilization, Neurospora intermedia, HNO3, microwave radiation.


Keywords


Biosolubilisasi batubara; Neurospora intermedia; HNO3; radiasi microwave

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